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Vostok 1KP
Vostok 1KP - Vostok 1KP Energia Museum

Credit: © Mark Wade. 22,328 bytes. 194 x 398 pixels.

Manufacturer's Designation: 1KP. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

Prototype of Vostok manned spacecraft and Zenit reconnaisance satellite.


Total Mass: 4,563 kg. Electrical System: Batteries.

Vostok 1K Chronology

01 March 1957 Tikhonravov first manned and lunar spacecraft designs.

In the spring of 1957 Korolev organised project section 9, with Tikhonravov at its chief, to design new spacecraft. By April they had completed a research plan to build a piloted spacecraft and an unmanned lunar probe, using the R-7 as the basis for the launch vehicle.

01 June 1958 Start of construction of manned spacecraft

Competing manned projects. Korolev OKB-1 proposed Vostok ballistic capsule as quickest way to put a man in space while meeting Zenit project's reconnsat requirements. Under project VKA-23 (Vodushno Kosmicheskiye Apparat) Myasishchev OKB-23 proposed two designs, a faceted craft with a single tail, and a dual tail contoured version. Tsybin OKB-256 proposed seven man winged craft with variable wing dihedral. Contracts awarded to all three OKB's to proceed with construction of protoypes. R-7 booster to be used for suborbital launches.

15 August 1958 Vostok advanced project complete.

A section devoted to the spacecraft was formed on 15 August 1958. Konstantin Feoktistov was one of the leading enthusiasts in this effort.

15 September 1958 Vostok final project signed by Korolev.

This allowed for full production drawing release to the fabrication shops and the beginning of tests of the spacecraft systems.

01 November 1958 Vostok spacecraft and Zenit spy satellite authorised.

Council of Chief Designers Decree 'On course of work on the piloted spaceship' was issued. Council of Chief designers approved the Vostok manned space program, in combination with Zenit spy satellite program Korolev was authorised to proceed with development of a spacecraft to achieve manned flights at the earliest possible date. However the design would be such that the same spacecraft could be used to fulfil the military's unmanned photo reconnaissance satellite requirement. The military resisted, but Korolev won. This was formalised in a decree of 25 May 1959.

22 May 1959 Vostok / Zenit-3 decree issued.

Due to a bitter fight with the military over the nature and priority of the manned spacecraft and photo-reconnaissance space programs, the final decree for the Vostok manned spacecraft was delayed until seven months after drawing release began. This authorised production of a single design that could be used either as a manned spacecraft or as a military reconnaissance satellite. These were the Zenit-2 and Zenit-4 spacecraft based on the Vostok design. This marked the end of the original Zenit configuration.

15 May 1960 Sputnik 4 Cabin Program: Vostok. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. Perigee: 257 km. Apogee: 460 km. Inclination: 65.2 deg.
04 June 1960 Molniya launch vehicle and initial Vostok flights approved. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.

Central Committee and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 587-238 'On the Realisation of the Plan to Master Cosmic Space in 1960 and the First Half of 1961 -creation of a four-stage launcher for interplanetary missions and schedule for the Korabl-Sputniks'

28 July 1960 Korabl-Sputnik Program: Vostok. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. FAILURE: At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strapon Block B or G burned through. The strapon separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at 28.5 seconds.

First attempted flight of the Vostok 1K manned spacecraft prototype. Dogs Chaika and Lisichka perished in the explosion of the rocket.

19 August 1960 Korabl-Sputnik 2 Program: Vostok. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. Mass: 1,440 kg. Perigee: 281 km. Apogee: 340 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 1.09 days.

The Soviet Union launched its second unmanned test of the Vostok spacecraft, the Korabl Sputnik II, or Sputnik V. The spacecraft carried two dogs, Strelka and Belka, in addition to a gray rabbit, rats, mice, flies, plants, fungi, microscopic water plants, and seeds. Electrodes attached to the dogs and linked with the spacecraft communications system, which included a television camera, enabled Soviet scientists to check the animals' hearts, blood pressure, breathing, and actions during the trip. After the spacecraft reentered and landed safely the next day, the animals and biological specimens were reported to be in good condition.
Officially: Development of systems ensuring man's life functions and safety in flight and his return to Earth.

01 December 1960 Korabl-Sputnik 3 Program: Vostok. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. Mass: 4,563 kg. Perigee: 123 km. Apogee: 269 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 0.99 days.

The Soviet Union launched its third spaceship satellite, Korabl Sputnik III, or Sputnik VI. The spacecraft, similar to those launched on May 15 and August 19, carried the dogs Pcheka and Mushka in addition to other animals, insects, and plants. Deorbited December 2, 1960 7:15 GMT. Burned up on reentry due to steep entry angle (retrofire engine did not shut off on schedule and burned to fuel depletion).
Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.
Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.

22 December 1960 Korabl-Sputnik Program: Vostok. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. FAILURE: The third stage engine RO-7 failed just after ignifition, 425 seconds in to flight.

Unable to reach orbital velocity, the Vostok prototype separated while the third stage was still firing. While the ejection seat failed to operate, the capsule did make a hard landing in severe winter conditons in Siberia. It was recovered after some time, and the dogs Kometa and Shutka were alive. As a result of this flight the ejection seat was developed with a heat shield designed to protect the pilot in the event of a launch vehicle failure up to shut down of the first stage.

08 February 1963 Further construction of Vostok spacecraft approved.

Decree 24 'On the Manufacture of 'Vostok' Objects --manufacture of Vostok spacecraft in 1963' was issued.

21 March 1963 Vostok launch plans in 1963.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On preparation of proposals on launches of Vostok spacecraft' was issued.

13 April 1963 Vostok plans in 1963.

Decree 'On plans for Vostok launches in 1963' was issued.


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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